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VOLUME 95 (2012) | ISSUE 1 | PAGE 29
Evolution of edge states in topological superfluids during the quantum phase transition
The quantum phase transition between topological and non-topological insulators or between fully gapped superfluids/superconductors can occur without closing the gap. We consider the evolution of the Majorana edge states on the surface of topological superconductor during transition to the topologically trivial superconductor on example of non-interacting Hamiltonian describing the spin-triplet superfluid 3He-B. In conventional situation when the gap is nullified at the transition, the spectrum of Majorana fermions shrinks and vanishes after the transition to the trivial state. If the topological transition occurs without the gap closing, the Majorana fermion spectrum disappears by escaping to ultraviolet, where Green's function approaches zero. This demonstrates the close connection between the topological transition without closing the gap and zeroes in the Green's function. Similar connection takes place in interacting systems where zeroes may occur due to interaction.