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VOLUME 106 (2017) | ISSUE 4 | PAGE 220
Effective Minkowski to Euclidean signature change of the magnon BEC pseudo-Goldstone mode in polar 3He
We discuss the effective metric experienced by the Nambu-Goldstone mode propagating in the broken symmetry spin-superfluid state of coherent precession of magnetization. This collective mode represents the phonon in the RF driven or pulsed out-of-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of optical magnons. We derive the effective BEC free energy and consider the phonon spectrum when the spin superfluid BEC is formed in the anisotropic polar phase of superfluid 3He, experimentally observed in uniaxial aerogel 3He-samples. The coherent precession of magnetization experiences an instability at a critical value of the tilting angle of external magnetic field with respect to the anisotropy axis. From the action of quadratic deviations around equilibrium, this instability is interpreted as a Minkowski-to-Euclidean signature change of the effective phonon metric. We also note the similarity between the magnon BEC in the unstable region and an effective vacuum scalar "ghost" condensate.